Author(s): Tegenu Gizaw, Feyera Gemeda Dima.
Artificial insemination is recognized as the best biotechnological technique for increasing reproductive capacity and has received wide spread application in farm animals. A cross sectional study was conducted from November, 2014 to April, 2015 with the objective of assessing the problems and constraints associated with artificial insemination service in two districts of Arsi zone and coming to applicable recommendation. In this study, a structured questionnaire was used and 431 respondents (384 smallholder dairy farmers, 34 Animal health and production professionals (AHPPs) and 13 Artificial insemination technicians) were included. Retrospective data was also included in the study to evaluate the situation of AI service in the study site. According to the study result, 122(31.8%) of the smallholder dairy farmers have got AI service regularly without interruption while 262(68.2%) of them do not due to unavailability of AITs 108(28.1%), discontinuation of service on weekends and holidays 60(15.7%), high cost of service 87(22.7%) and lack of inputs 35(9.1%) with statistical significance between districts (P<0.05). Repeat breeding 287(74.6%), absence of service on weekends 60(15.5%), lack of easy access to animal health 240(60.5%), unavailability of AITs 108(28.1%), disease 327(85.2%), long distance 154 (40.1%), and high cost of service 87(22.6%) were the major identified problems and constraints of AI delivery system in the study area. 60.7 % of farmers take their caws to AI station to get the service while others use phone calling the AI technician. Generally, the questionnaire surveys indicated that artificial insemination service is not in good condition in both districts of the zone. Therefore, artificial insemination service requires urgent measures to change the situation to achieve success. Key words: Artificial Insemination, Dairy Cattle, farm owners, Problems, service.