Received: Sep 02, 2021 Published: Sep 23, 2021
Anatomy is a branch of natural science that studies the structure and organization of living things. It is an ancient science that originated in prehistoric times. Anatomy is inherently related to developmental biology, embryology, comparative anatomy, evolutionary biology, and phylogeny, because these are processes that generate anatomy on both immediate and long-term time scales. Anatomy and physiology study the structure and function of objects and their parts respectively, forming a pair of natural related disciplines, and they are often studied together. Human anatomy is one of the important basic sciences applied to medicine.
Anatomy is divided into macro and micro. Gross anatomy or gross anatomy is the examination of various parts of an animal’s body without visual aid. General anatomy also includes superficial anatomy branches. Microanatomy involves the use of optical instruments to study various structures of tissue. This is called histology, and it also involves cell research. The history of anatomy is characterized by a gradual understanding of the functions of human organs and structures. Methods have also been significantly improved, from examining animals by dissecting cadavers and cadavers to 20th century medical imaging techniques, including X-rays, ultrasound, and MRI.
Anatomy can be subdivided into several branches, including gross or gross anatomy and microanatomy. Gross anatomy is the study of structures large enough to be seen with the naked eye. It also includes superficial anatomy or superficial anatomy, which is studied by observing the external features of the body. Microanatomy is the study of structures on the microscopic scale, as well as histology and embryology. Anatomy can be studied using invasive and non-invasive methods. The purpose is to obtain information about the structure and organization of organs and systems. The methods used include dissection, in which the body is opened and its organs studied, and endoscopy, in which an instrument equipped with a video camera is inserted through a small incision in the body wall and used to explore internal organs and other structures. X-ray angiography or magnetic resonance angiography is a method of visualizing blood vessels. The term “anatomy” is generally used to refer to human anatomy. However, basically the same structures and tissues have been found in the rest of the animal kingdom, and the term also includes the anatomical structures of other animals. The term animal incision is sometimes used to refer specifically to non- human animals. The structure and organization of plants have different properties and are studied in plant anatomy.
The animal kingdom contains heterotrophic and locomotor multicellular organisms. Most animals have differentiated bodies in different tissues, and these animals are also called true metazoans. They have an internal digestive chamber with one or two openings; gametes are produced in multicellular organs, and fertilized eggs include the blastocyst stage during embryonic development. Metazoa does not include sponges with undifferentiated cells. Unlike plant cells, animal cells do not have cell walls or chloroplasts. When present, vacuoles are more numerous and much smaller than those of plant cells. Body tissues are made up of many types of cells, including those found in muscles, nerves, and skin. Each usually has a cell membrane composed of phospholipids, cytoplasm and nucleus. All the different cells of an animal come from the embryonic germ layer. The simplest invertebrates formed by the two germ layers of ectoderm and endoderm are called double germ layers, and the more developed animals whose structure and organs consist of three germ layers are called trigerm animals.